Sikkerhetshåndbok

10. Working procedures – Mobile Crane

10.1 General


  • Cranes can only be used by qualified personnel.

  • Crane operators must ensure that the equipment is fit for
    use/certified. Crane operators should also perform test
    movements to check that the circuit breaker functions correctly
    (Operational test).

  • There must be enough light so that the crane operator and
    signalman can see the load. Signalman should be able to use
    hand signals or portable radio.

  • Crane operators should not have other tasks that may distract
    attention while performing crane operations.

  • Mobile phones must not be used while lift operations are in
    progress.

  • Crane operators must not start moving before signal is given or
    the entire load is in sight.
    - Control line must be used to control long, heavy or difficult lifts.
    - Crane operators should not leave the operator's seat with free
    hanging load.

  • Crane operators are responsible for all crane operations;
    primarily in a safe way. If there is any doubt, crane operators
    can refuse to lift until safe requirements are met.

  • When multiple cranes operate in the same area, action must be
    taken against minimizing the collision risk. For example, work
    area limitation, communication between cranes, driving
    schedule, etc. Contact coordinator and document with SJA.

  • It is forbidden to move the mobile crane when the crane boom
    is not in transportation mode.

  • If in individual/special cases transportation has to be
    carried out, this must be permitted according to the
    cranes instruction manual, be controlled and assessed as
    safe.
    -  The hook must be attached to the undercarriage.
    -  The transfer must be documented with Safe Job Analysis
    (SJA). Important points in this regard include outrigged
    support legs, locked crane, flat ground, short distance,
    power lines and other current risk conditions.


10.2 Lifting procedures

Arrangement

  • Support leg plates (wood/steel/nylon) for support legs should
    always be used. The support plates must be larger than the cranes support legs. If steel plates are used on steel plates, there should always be a layer of fibrous material between them.

  • Support plates must be at least 75 x 75 cm.

  • The base for support plates must be secured against sliding.

  • The crane’s support plate must be as straight as possible.

  • The crane should be horizontal in both directions. For crawler
    cranes without support legs, the surface shall not have a higher
    inclination angle than what is permitted.

  • The support legs shall, where it is possible, be driven from the
    undercarriage.

  • Over carriage must never be swung before the support legs are
    in place. Exception: When the program allows this.

  • Check that there is pressure on all the supporting legs and all
    wheels have unobstructed ground access.

  • A Safe Job Analysis (SJA) should be done when:

  • Other machines (for example tower cranes) are in the
    crane work area/radius.

  • The trailing edge on the counterweight during rotation
    physically can risk colliding into another machines or
    person.


Check list before lifting

  • Check that the safety equipment is working properly.

  • Check that the lift is within the cranes valid lifting capacity.

  • Use the correct lifting equipment. The main rule is to use a chain if you are about to lift cargo where fiber straps can be damaged or where there are sharp edges.

  • If fiber straps are to be used, then you should use standard shims (40x30 or 20x30) to minimize the risk of cutting.

  • If there are lifting eyebolts available then these shall be used, unless visual inspection detects faults/defects/damage.

  • Check that the load is secured correctly.

  • For blind lifts, the slinger has the responsibility for the lifting equipment and securing the load. It shall be a person with theoretically and practical competence/skills. The slinger shall be in direct contact with the crane operator and instruct him. There must be a dialogue between these two before the lift operation starts. Discuss signals, signs and radio procedures, so that there is no doubt for safety and so that no misunderstanding occurs. Use SJA/toolbox to document.

  • Cranes must not be used where wind speed is above threshold limit. See operating manual for more information.

  • The assignment must be terminated, and the nearest manager should be contacted if there is any doubt about/during the lift operation.


Checklist during lift operation


  • Effective communication between crane operator and
    signalman.

  • No lifting over personnel.

  • Check if the crane is still horizontal and does not lean towards a direction.


Checklist after a lift operation

  • Check that the lifting equipment is in certified condition.


Driving on road
Ensure that the crane is secured for transport, is equipped for
current conditions and that you have any valid dispensations where
it is required.

Elements with increased risk:
- The ground where the crane is located does not have sufficient
bearing capacity.
- High/Low-voltage - Minimum distance.
- Remember that plastic plates are slippery when put on snow. Use
sand or gravel underneath.
- Road verges that cannot handle the load of larger vehicles.
- People below or near hanging load.

References:

  • Crane operations manual.


Quality control:
♦ The equipment must be certified and marked with SWL or WLL.
♦ Daily inspection (machine report) of lifting equipment.

10.3 Other lift operations

Other lift operations describe processes in addition to normal lift
operations, the use of equipment, documentation, risk management
etc.

Working with sheet piling


  • Coordinator/supervisor shall ensure that crane operators
    receive necessary training and understanding of the risks
    involved in sheet piling works.

  • Sheet piling work with a mobile crane that has a telescopic
    boom requires that you know which boom combination to
    choose and what power the machine will be exposed to. ​

  • Procedure and checklist relating to this shall be sent to the
    crane operator by coordinator/supervisor, and crane
    operators shall ensure that they are followed and filled in
    before work commences. In addition to the checklist, a JSA
    must also be filled in.

  • Cranes with a telescopic boom: the crane's permitted lifting
    capacity in its working radius shall be reduced by at least 30%.

  • Use ear protection inside the crane when the vibro is being used.

  • Split pins/locking pins should be used in all bolts exposed to vibration.

  • Check the switch before lifting, and during the day.




Dredging with mobile crane

  • Ensure that crane operators have experience/necessary training
    with the use of current work equipment. ​

  • The procedure for dredging shall be sent with the crane
    operator on assignments.

  • The user manual for work tools should be available in the crane during the mission.


Routines when using the crane personnel basket
These following requirements must be met:

  • Valid dispensation for crane man baskets and associated
    procedure, risk assessment and safety documentation must be
    included and completed prior to start-up. These documents
    must be available in all machine binders and in the company's
    quality assurance system.

  • Should only be used in places where other approved equipment
    cannot be used. The client should specify and sign this in the

  •  JSA - Lift operation.

  • Personnel basket shall be intended for workers and shall be,
    together with the crane, inspected by accredited inspection
    body within 12 months. Certificates must be available.

  • Crane must have been inspected within 12 months.

  • The permitted lifting capacity of the working radius shall be
    reduced by 50 %.

  • The crane driver must have a valid crane operator license and
    have completed training at the lifting facility.

  • Everybody in the basket must be secured against falls by using
    fall protection harness connected in the basket. Everyone in the
    basket must wear life jackets if the lift operation is above water.

  • It is forbidden to increase the working height by means of
    ladders or similar placed objects in the basket.

  • The crane must not be used for lifting cargo while people are in the basket.

  • There must always be a visual and/or preferably a two-way
    open radio communication between the crane operator and
    people in the basket.

  • Personnel baskets are not allowed to be used near electrical
    grids.

  • In the case of doing electric welding work from the basket,
    there must be no current passage in the basket, lifting device or
    crane.

  • The crane operator must not leave the control position while
    there are people in the basket.

  • The crane must not be switched off; the engine must be running
    when people are in the basket.

  • The mobile phone must not be used in any other case than in
    emergency.


Truck cranes shall not be used with a personnel basket, only in cases
when we have a crane and a truck crane that has been inspected
together.